Die Yogyakarta-Prinzipien (engl. „The Yogyakarta Principles. Principles on the application of international human rights law in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity“) bringen gemäß eigenem Anspruch mit 29 Prinzipien die Menschenrechte in Bezug auf sexuelle Orientierung und Geschlechtsidentität zu Anwendung. Sie am 23. März 2007 von international anerkannten Menschenrechtlern im indonesischen Yogyakarta veröffentlicht, um mögliche Fälle einer Verletzung der Rechte von Lesben, Schwulen, Bisexuellen und Transgender, zusammengefasst LGBT, ahnden zu können.
Der Philosoph Daniel Moody zieht ein Resümee:
It is becoming more and more clear that the so-called LGBT movement is less a natural union of fellow travellers and more a communion of the contradictory. To see the fault line running between the LGB (sexual orientation) and the T (gender identity), let us employ the Yogyakarta Principles’ own definitions.
Sexual orientation, we are told, refers to “each person’s capacity for profound emotional, affectional and sexual attraction to, and intimate and sexual relations with, individuals of a different gender or the same gender or more than one gender.” Here, gender is not a synonym of sex, as is evident from the use of the phrase “more than one” rather than “both.” In turn, gender identity is defined as
- each person’s deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the personal sense of the body (which may involve, if freely chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means) and other expressions of gender, including dress, speech and mannerisms.
It takes a lot of lawyers to say so much without saying anything at all. If our gender identity is a state of mind defined without reference to our sex (i.e., our body), then our gender identity is “the identity of our gender.” But gender itself is not defined anywhere within the Yogyakarta Principles. We are told what gender is not—sex—but not what it is.
Here’s the fault line: if sexual orientation is defined in terms of gender, and if gender is not defined in terms of sex, then sex has been extracted from sexual orientation. But sexual orientation is entirely dependent on sex, because it is entirely dependent on sexual difference—no two people can know they are the same (sex) as each other without first knowing they are not different (sexes) from each other.